Worm gear and worm reducer is a kind of has a compact structure, large transmission ratio, and under certain conditions has self-locking function of mechanical transmission, is one of the most commonly used reducer, among them, the hollow shaft type worm gear reducer is not only has the characteristics of the above, and convenient installation, reasonable structure, more and more widely used. Hollow shaft type worm gear reducer on the worm gear and worm reducer input end with a helical gear reducer, multistage reducer consisting of very low output speed can be obtained, is the combination of the levels helical gear and worm gear, than pure single-stage worm gear deceleration machine has higher efficiency. And small vibration, low noise, low energy consumption.
Common problems and their causes. 1) speed reducer heating and oil leakage, (2) worm gear wear, (3) drive small bevel gear wear, (4) bearing (worm) damage.
1 speed reducer heating and oil leakage. Worm reducer in order to improve the efficiency, generally adopt nonferrous metal worm gear, worm, the use of the hard steel, because it is sliding friction transmission, in the process of operation, can produce high quantity of heat, make the reducer thermal expansion differences between the parts and seal clearance to the mating surface, and the oil due to the rise of temperature is thinning, easy to cause leakage. There are four main reasons, one is the material collocation is reasonable, the second is on the surface of the mesh friction surface quality, the third is the choice of lubricating oil, add the amount is correct, four is the assembly quality and use of the environment.
Worm gear wear. Tin bronze commonly used worm gear, worm pairs, the material hardening of 45 steel is commonly used in a 55 to HRC45, also commonly used 40 c: hardened HRC50 55, via worm grinder grinding to roughness RaO. 8 FCM, normal operation of speed reducer, the worm is like a hardening of the "file", constantly filing worm, the worm gear wear and tear. Generally speaking, this kind of wear is slow, like a factory some speed reducer can use more than 10 years. If the speed of wear is faster, it is necessary to consider whether the selection of the reducer is correct, whether there is overload operation, the material of worm gear, the quality of assembly or the use of environment.
3 drive small bevel gear wear. Generally occurs in the vertical installation of the decelerator, mainly with the addition of lubricating oil and the choice of lubricating oil. Vertical installation, it is easy to cause enough lubricating oil, when stops working speed reducer, transmission gear oil loss between motor and reducer, gear without proper lubrication protection, not effectively in the process of starting or running lubrication result in mechanical wear and damage.
4 worm bearing is damaged. Speed reducer failure occurs, even if the reducer seal is good, it is often found in the reducer gear oil was emulsified and bearing has rust, corrosion, damage, this is because the reducer in the process of transport stopped, gear oil produced by hot cold water condensation caused; Of course, it is closely related to the bearing quality and assembly process.
(1) ensure assembly quality. In order to ensure the quality of assembly, the factory to buy some special tools and homemade, remove and install the reducer worm gear, worm, the parts such as bearings, gears, as far as possible to avoid direct hit with a hammer and other tools; When replacing gear and worm gear, choose the parts of the original plant and replace them in pairs. Output shaft assembly, pay attention to the tolerance matching, D 50 mm or less, use H7 / k6, D > 50 mm, USES the H7 / m6, at the same time to use the glue or red lead oil, protect the hollow shaft, to prevent wear and tear, rust preventing cooperate area scale, difficult to remove when maintenance.
(2) selection of lubricating oil and additives. 220 # is generally selected worm gear reducer gear oil, on some of the heavier load, frequent restart, use environment poor speed reducer, the factory also chose some lubricating oil additives (such as cure chemical company can be better), speed reducer, when stop, gear oil is still attached to the gear surface and form a protective film to prevent heavy load, low speed, high torque and recovering the contact between the metal and metal. The additive also contains the sealing ring regulator and the anti-leakage agent to keep the sealing ring soft and elastic, and effectively reduce the lubricating oil leakage phenomenon.
(3) selection of speed reducer mounting position. If position allows, do not use vertical installation as far as possible. In vertical installation, the amount of lubricant added is much higher than that of horizontal installation, which can easily cause heating and oil leakage of the reducer. The factory imported 40000 bottles/' ShiChunSheng beer production line, some of them are using vertical installation, after a period of time after the operation, drive pinion is wear and tear, damage, even after adjustment, has been improved a lot.
(4) establish corresponding lubrication maintenance system. The factory according to the lubrication work "five set" principle, to maintenance of reducer, to every a deceleration machine has be periodic inspection, when the work is found in a significant rise in the oil temperature, temperature rise of more than 40 ℃ or oil temperature over 80 ℃, the quality of the oil drop or found in the oil more copper powder and the phenomenon such as abnormal noise, to immediately stop using the timely maintenance, troubleshooting, and replace the lubricating oil before use. When refueling, pay attention to the amount of oil and the installation position to ensure that the reducer is properly lubricated.